IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 02, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Survey: Embedded World Around MQTT Protocol for IoT Application
Kirit Vanani1 Jignesh Patoliya2 Hardik Patel3
Reserch Scholar 2Asst. Prof
Department of Electronics Communication Engineering
GTU PG School, Ahmedabad, India 2 CSPIT, Changa, India
Abstract— Now a day in a smarter embedded world, have
IoT (Internet of Things). IoT have lot of things for the
embedded systems, and it has the potential to transform our
world with the help of it. IoT is playing role for smart cities,
smart grid, smart health monitoring, smart clothes etc. All
these technologies of IoT is going to change the living
lifestyle of human being. MQTT (Message Queue
Telemetry Transport) is a IoT standard protocol. It is ClientServer, based publish/subscribe messaging transport
protocol. It is light weight, open source, simple, and can be
designed such way that, we can easily implement in
embedded devices, and IoT based systems/applications.
These characteristics make it ideal for use in many
situations, including IoT based various applications,
embedded systems, and communication in Machine to
Machine (M2M) where a small size code is required and/or
network bandwidth is at appreciate.
Key words: IoT, MQTT, M2M, WSN, TCP, OASIS, ESB,
A. Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a cohesive part of the
potential Internet and could be defined for productive global
network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities
based on its standard and interoperable communication
protocols where physical objects will be connected with
Internet and identify themselves to other physical/virtual
devices. In the IoT, physical/virtual devices are expected to
become active participants in business, information
exchange and social processes where they are enabled to
interact and communicate among themselves and with the
environment by exchanging data and information by sensed
system environment. They responding autonomously to the
“real/physical world” events and effecting it by running
processes that trigger actions and create services with or
without any direct human intervention/direction. [1]
More information about Iot is that, it is a smart
network which connects all things to the internet for the
purpose of exchanging information with agreed protocols.
So, anyone can access anything, at any time and from
anywhere. In IoT network, things or objects are wirelessly
connects with smart tiny sensors.
IoT devices can interact with each other without or
with human intervention. IoT have lot of things for the
embedded systems, and it has the potential to transform our
world with the help of it. IoT is playing role for smart cities,
smart grid, smart health monitoring, smart clothes etc. All
these technologies of IoT is going to change the living
lifestyle of human being. [1]
The MQTT protocol is lightweight in the sense that clients
are small, and it uses network bandwidth efficiently. The

MQTT protocol supports assured delivery and fire-andforget transfers. In the protocol, message delivery is
decoupled from the application. The extent of decoupling in
an application depends on the way an MQTT client and
MQTT server are written. Decoupled delivery frees up an
application from any server connection, and from waiting
for messages. The interaction model is like email, but
optimized for application programming. [2]
MQTT is especially for machine-to-machine
(M2M) and Internet of Things connectivity protocol. It was
designed as a highly lightweight publish/subscribe
messaging protocol and it is useful for connections with
remote locations where a small size code is required and
network bandwidth is at appreciate.” [3]
MQTT is open source publish/subscribe protocol,
for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). It is mainly designed
in such a way that it can be run on competitive and batterysaving sensor/actuator devices and operate over bandwidth
confinement WSNs. [4]
MQTT is publish/subscribe messaging protocol
built on application layer stack of the Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) and designed to be lightweight. Moreover, it
supports for the offline messaging to handle disconnected
clients at online broker. It is in standardization within the
Advancing Open Standard for the Information Society
(OASIS) consortium. [5]
The architecture of IoT consists of a set of
components. All Layers of it, can be realized by means of
specific technologies, and we will discuss for realizing each
component. As shown in figure 1, there are also some
upright layers such as devices manager, identity & access

Fig. 1: Architecture for IoT
The layers are:
 Client (external communications) layers. i.e. Web/Portal,
Dashboard, APIs
 Event processing and analytics layer (including data

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A Survey: Embedded World Around MQTT Protocol for IoT Application
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/009)

 Aggregation/bus layer – ESB (Enterprise Service Bus)
and broker communication
 Relevant transports – MQTT/HTTP, etc protocols
 Devices (connected with IoT)
The upright layers are
 Device manager
 Identity & access management
A. Device Layer
The bottom layer of this architecture is the device layer.
Devices can be of various types, but in order to be
considered as IoT devices, they must have to communicate
by indirectly or directly attaches to the Internet. Examples of
this layer are:
 Arduino connected with Ethernet connection
 Raspberry Pi connected via Ethernet connection
 Smart car connected with wireless internet
 Android apps connected via a mobile phone
There are many more such examples of each type. [6]
B. Communication Layer
The communication layer supports the connectivity for the
devices. There are multiple potential protocols for
communication between the devices and the cloud. The
most well- known three potential protocols are listed here,
 MQTT protocol
 Constrained application protocol (CoAP)
Here, for the reference architecture we have determine for
select MQTT as the preferred device communication
protocol, with HTTP as an alternative option. [6]
C. Aggregation/Bus Layer
This is important layer of IoT architecture. In it brokers
communication play main role. This is an important layer
for three reasons, which noted here:
1) The facility to support an HTTP server and/or an MQTT
broker communicate with devices.
2) The facility for combine communications from different
devices and route communications to a specific device.
3) The facility for bridge device and transform between
different protocols, e.g. HTTP based APIs, which are
settled into MQTT.
The aggregation/bus layer provides above capabilities as
well as adapting into legacy protocols. [6]
D. Event Processing & Analytics Layer
This layer mainly takes the events from the bus and provides
the ability to process and act upon these events. A core
capability here is the requirement to store the data into a
database. [6]
E. Clint/External Communications Layer
This layers includes three main approaches. Which are listed
1) We need the ability to create web-based front-ends and
portals that interact with devices and with the eventprocessing layer.
2) We need the ability to create dashboards that offer views
into analytics and event processing.

3) We need to be able to interact with systems outside of
this network using machine to machine (M2M)
communications using different APIs. [6]
F. Device Management
A device manager (server-side system) communicates with
devices via various protocols and provides both individual
and total control of devices. The device manager also needs
to maintain the list of device identities and map these into
owners. [6]
G. Identity & Access Management
The last layer is the identity & access management layer.
This layer needs to provide the following services:
 Authentication taken of issuing and validation
 Other identity services like, OpenID Connect support for
identifying inbound requests from the web layer
 Directory of users.
 Policy management for access controlling. [6]
MQTT protocol used at session layer in IoT protocol stack.
In order to utilize IoT paradigm, interconnected devices
need to communicate using lightweight protocols which do
not need extensive use of CPU resources. For this, C,
Python, Java and MQTT scripting languages are preferable
choices used by IoT applications. [7]
MQTT Broker controls the distribution of
information. It stores, forwards, filters and prioritizes public
requests from the publisher client to the subscriber clients.
Clients switch between publisher role and subscriber roles
depending on the functionalities desired. [7]
So many MQTT brokers available now, like,
Apache ActiveMQ, Apache Apollo, IBM Message Sight,
JoramMQ, Mosquitto, RabbitMQ, HiveMQ, MQTT.js, Web
sphere MQ, Solace Message Routers, mosca, etc. All are
different in their feature; they can be setting as per our
requirement. Some of them we can also implement
additional features. [8]
MQTT makes small attempt to enable device-todevice data transfer, also separate the data to many
recipients (Clients). Since it has a clear, compelling single
application, MQTT is simple, offering few control options.
It also doesn’t need to be particularly fast. In this context,
“real time” is typically measured in seconds. [9]
The Publish/Subscribe model used in MQTT
systems is very easily mapped to resource observers. Figure
2 shows a diagram of an MQTT Observer associated with a
Smart Object Observable Property such that it can publish
updates to the MQTT broker that result from PUT
operations and subscribe to the MQTT broker updates and
apply them to the Observable Property. [10]

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A Survey: Embedded World Around MQTT Protocol for IoT Application
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/009)

compliant architecture. They also make comparison between
the MQTT Proxy and the HTTP Proxy, it shows that the
MQTT Proxy has lower latency, better power-saving and
more support feature than the HTTP Proxy.

Fig. 2: MQTT Observer work in IoT
Many researchers have been working on MQTT protocol for
communication in embedded devices, machine to machine
(M2M) communication and IoT framework where a small
code is required and/or network bandwidth is at appreciate.
In this section, we described various MQTT and IoT based
system which are proposed in recent years.
A. MQTT - A Publish/Subscribe Protocol for Wireless
Sensor Networks (WSN)
Hunkeler, U and team [4] proposed that, MQTT is designed
in such a way that it can be run competitive and batterysaving sensor/actuator devices and operate over bandwidth
constrict WSNs. A particular advantage of MQTT over
other protocols is that it is based on a well-known
publish/subscribe protocol already widely used now a day.
MQTT allows a transparent data exchange between WSNs
and any kind of networks and even between different
WSNs. In addition, MQTT is extremely lightweight and can
be further exposed down to a desert minimum.
B. IoT Application Layer Protocol Analysis over Error and
Delay prone Links
Collina, M and team [5] research work is to understand in
which conditions is better to use CoAP or MQTT in respect
to the increase of delay and packet loss. They analyzed
MQTT and CoAP protocols, both protocols suited for lowcost, low-power and resource controlled devices. As their
results show, MQTT offers higher throughput and lower
latency as compaire to CoAP in high offered traffic
scenario, in the presence of high percentage of packet loss
and delay. Based on their results, it is possible to assess a
guideline in choosing the application protocol for an IoT
application depending on the network characteristics.
MQTT performs better in the low throughput scenario with
a single device, they suggest for use of MQTT in presence
of high delay and a single device.
C. Converging MQTT resources in ETSI standards based
M2M platform
Hsiang Wen Chen and team [11] proposed a, method to
integrate MQTT protocol with the ETSI (European
Telecommunication Standard Institute) M2M architecture
via a new network function called MQTT proxy. The
MQTT proxy, on the one side, acts as an MQTT broker to
the MQTT clients. While on the other side, it serves as a
Gateway Application for interfacing with the ETSI M2M-

D. End-to-end Service Assurance in loT MQTT-SN
Govindan, K and team [12] inform that, MQTT for Sensor
Network (MQTT-SN) can mainly have three different types
of architectures.In Transparent Gateway architecture will
have one Gateway for each sensor nodes. In Hybrid
Gateway architecture, nodes can be connected to multiple
Gatewaysand visa versa.
In Aggregated Gateway
architecture, there is one Gateway which aggregates all the
nodes data and send them to the Server. They proposed that,
MQTT-SN model the client is connected to Gateway using
MQTT-SN over wireless UDP. The client can connect to
multiple Gateways. The Gateways use conventional MQTT
over wired TCP to publish/subscribe message to/from sever.
The content can be delivered with 3 levels of QoS. The
QoS-O is called At-most-once delivery, QoS-l is called
Atlest once delivery and the third QoS-2 is called exactlyonce delivery.
E. Secure MQTT for IoT
Singh Meena and team [13] proposed a Secure MQTT
(SMQTT) which augments security feature for the existing
MQTT protocol and its variants based on lightweight
Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) over elliptic curves. The
advantage of using ABE is because of its inherent design
which supports broadcast encryption (with one encryption,
message is delivered to multiple intended users) and thus
suitable for IoT applications. ABE have two types:
1) Ciphertext Policy based ABE (CP-ABE) and
2) Key Policy based ABE (KPABE).
In general each of these schemes are different w.r.t the
access policy, key management and are suitable for different
kinds of applications. Thus these schemes for SMQTT from
IoT perspective.
F. Handling Mobility in loT applications using the
MQTT protocol
Luzuriaga, J.E. and team [14] provide a solution to improve
MQTT with an emphasis on mobile scenarios. They
proposed enhancements to the MQTT protocol. Their
proposal maintains the publish/subscribe approach but
decouples the pure data generation process by the data
sending process. It is based on a technique called
intermediate buffering. This decoupling allows for recovery
when the communication channel presents disruption
periods, even if these are very frequent and last for several
seconds, a situation where TCP fails to recover from. They
prediction that, there is no information loss during the handoff of the producer/publisher node, thus making a messaging
system based on MQTT protocol robust, and able to
guarantee message delivery without losses in the presence of
publisher node mobility. Messages losses would be present
only when roaming time tends to infinite, a situation prone
to cause memory leaks and the system buffer capacity to be

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A Survey: Embedded World Around MQTT Protocol for IoT Application
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 02/2016/009)

In this paper, we made an attempt to provide survey on the
Embedded world and/or machine to machine (M2M)
communication around MQTT protocol, for IoT application
using various smart wireless sensors logger. As provide
above existing approaches, we can get many information
 As Reference existing approach 1), we can use MQTT
for WSN without anyking of technical problem.
 As Reference existing approach 2), we can use MQTT
instead of CoAP protocol in IoT application.
 As Reference existing approach 3), we can use MQTT
proxy instead of, HTTP proxy in IoT application.
 As Reference existing approach 4), we can use MQTTSN for End-to-end Service Assurance in loT application.
 As Reference existing approach 5), we can get surety
that, we can provide security in MQTT for IoT based
 As Reference existing approach 6), we can use MQTT
for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems in term of
Adaptive Periodic Communication.
 As Reference existing approach 7), we can use MQTT
protocol, for Handling Mobility in loT applications.
So, as per above survey, We can get surety that, for
embedded world and/or Machine to Machine (M2M)
communication we have to use MQTT protocol for various
IoT application.
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